“地球之肺”在燃烧!亚马孙烧了3周 巴西派出军队灭火

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Aerial view showing smoke billowing from a patch of forest being cleared with fire in the surroundings of Boca do Acre, a city in Amazonas State, in the Amazon basin in northwestern Brazil, on August 24, 2019. - Brazil on August 25 deployed two Hercules C-130 aircraft to douse fires devouring parts of the Amazon rainforest. The latest official figures show 79,513 forest fires have been recorded in the country this year, the highest number of any year since 2013. More than half of those are in the massive Amazon basin. Experts say increased land clearing during the months-long dry season to make way for crops or grazing has aggravated the problem this year. (Photo by LULA SAMPAIO / AFP)

星岛资料图

近日,亚马孙雨林大火(fires in the Amazon rainforest)引发全球关注。据报道,此次大火已持续三周之久,目前过火面积已经超过80万公顷。目前巴西已经派出军队军机灭火。

▌巴西军方参与救火

23日巴西总统雅伊尔·博索纳罗授权军方参与亚马孙雨林灭火。

As of Sunday, President Jair Bolsonaro had authorized military operations in seven states to combat raging fires in the Amazon, responding to requests for assistance from their local governments, a spokeswoman for his office said.

总统办公室发言人说,截至周日,巴西总统雅伊尔·博索纳罗已授权军方在七个州帮助扑灭亚马孙地区的大火,以回应当地政府的援助请求。

此举也被媒体视为博索纳罗对国际舆论批评的回应:

Bolsonaro announced the military would be sent in on Friday after several days of criticism from the public and world leaders that Brazil’s government was not doing anything to fight the fires.
在受到公众和各国领导人连日批评巴西政府在应对火灾方面毫无作为后,博索纳罗宣布周五(23日)军队将参与灭火。

巴西国防部长费尔南多·阿泽维多24日表示,大约4.4万名士兵可以参与灭火,正赶往罗赖马、朗多尼亚、托坎廷斯等6州。

Under increasing international pressure to contain the fires, Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro has ordered 44,000 troops to be ready to combat the fires.

国际社会要求控制火势的压力越来越大,巴西总统雅伊尔·博索纳罗下令4万4千名军人准备参与灭火。

据报道,巴西军方出动两架C-130型“大力神”运输机,运水灭火。

A video posted by the Defense Ministry on Saturday evening showed a military plane pumping thousands of liters of water out of two giant jets as it passed through clouds of smoke close to the forest canopy.

国防部上周六晚间发布的一段视频显示,一架军用飞机在穿过森林树冠附近的烟云时,从两架巨型喷气式飞机中抽出了数千升的水用来灭火。

▌亚马孙雨林新增1600多处着火点

巴西国家太空研究院(Brazil’s National Institute for Space Research)的数据显示,超过半数的着火点集中在亚马孙盆地,22日至23日新增大约1663处着火点。

巴西今年以来报告森林着火点接近7.7万处,比去年同期增加大约85%,超过半数着火点位于亚马孙雨林。

Brazilian state experts reported nearly 77,000 wildfires across the country so far this year, up 85 percent over the same period in 2018.

▌着火原因:自然or人为?

据CNN报道,不少专家表示此次雨林大火,更多是人为原因造成的。

当地农牧民向来有放火开荒的耕种传统,8月份进入旱季后,植物更为干燥,更易点燃。

This year’s fires fit with an established seasonal agricultural pattern, said CNN meteorologist Haley Brink. “It’s the best time to burn because the vegetation is dry. “

CNN气象学家Haley Brink表示,今年的火灾与当地季节性的农业模式契合。“植被很干燥,所以这是烧山开荒的最佳时机。”

当地时间8月24日,巴西朗多尼亚州,巴西境内的亚马孙雨林大火火情十分严峻。燃烧后的亚马孙雨林满目疮痍。(图片来源:视觉中国)

非营利组织亚马孙观察项目负责人Christian Poirier表示,此次大部分着火点都是人为造成的(human-lit)。

“The vast majority of these fires are human-lit,” said Poirier, who explained that even during dry seasons, the rainforest cannot catch fire easily, unlike, say, the dry bushlands of California or Australia.

Poirier说:“绝大多数火灾都是人为点燃的。”他解释称,即使在旱季,雨林也不像加州或澳大利亚的干旱丛林那样容易着火。

巴西总统博索纳罗自今年1月就职以来多次表示,巴西应该为商业利益开放亚马孙雨林,允许采矿、伐木和农业企业开发雨林自然资源。

舆论认为,博索纳罗对雨林开发的态度,是对“大火开荒”等非法行为的纵容和默许。

同时也有报道指出,巴西现任政府对雨林保护力度的减弱,以及相对前任政府来说较为消极的政策,是导致这场大火持续数周之久的原因之一。

▌亚马孙雨林大火或加快全球变暖

亚马孙雨林是世界上最大的雨林,对减缓全球变暖至关重要,故常被称为“地球之肺(the planet’s lungs)”。

The Amazon is the world’s largest tropical rain forest and is seen as vital to the fight against climate change because of the vast amounts of carbon dioxide that it absorbs.

亚马孙是全球最大的热带雨林,可吸收大量二氧化碳,被视为对抗气候变化的重要因素。

专家分析指出,此次大火最直接的影响是南美地区降雨减少、气候更加干燥。

长期来看,大火造成的碳排放或将导致全球变暖更严重。

Brazilian climate scientist Carlos Nobre said he worries if 20-25 percent of the ecosystem is destroyed that the Amazon could reach a tipping point, after which it would enter a self-sustaining period of dieback as the forest converts to savannah. Nobre warned that it is not far off with already 15-17 percent of the rain forest having been destroyed.

巴西气候科学家卡洛斯·诺布雷说,他担心如果20%-25%的生态系统遭到破坏,亚马孙可能会达到一个临界点,在此之后,随着森林向热带草原转变,亚马孙将进入一个自我维持的死亡期。诺布雷警告说,已经有15%-17%的雨林被摧毁,离这个后果已经不远了。

单词:

canopy [‘kænəpi] n. 天蓬;罩蓬

vegetation n. 植被;草木

meteorologist [‘mitɪə’rɑlədʒɪst] n. 气象学者

bushland n. 灌木丛;原始林区

dieback n. 枝枯病

savannah [sə’vænə] n. 热带和亚热带草原

tropical rainforest 热带雨林

carbon dioxide 二氧化碳

tipping point 临界点

(来源:中国日报)

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