「地球之肺」在燃燒!亞馬孫燒了3周 巴西派出軍隊滅火

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Aerial view showing smoke billowing from a patch of forest being cleared with fire in the surroundings of Boca do Acre, a city in Amazonas State, in the Amazon basin in northwestern Brazil, on August 24, 2019. - Brazil on August 25 deployed two Hercules C-130 aircraft to douse fires devouring parts of the Amazon rainforest. The latest official figures show 79,513 forest fires have been recorded in the country this year, the highest number of any year since 2013. More than half of those are in the massive Amazon basin. Experts say increased land clearing during the months-long dry season to make way for crops or grazing has aggravated the problem this year. (Photo by LULA SAMPAIO / AFP)

星島資料圖

近日,亞馬孫雨林大火(fires in the Amazon rainforest)引發全球關注。據報道,此次大火已持續三周之久,目前過火面積已經超過80萬公頃。目前巴西已經派出軍隊軍機滅火。

▌巴西軍方參與救火

23日巴西總統雅伊爾·博索納羅授權軍方參與亞馬孫雨林滅火。

As of Sunday, President Jair Bolsonaro had authorized military operations in seven states to combat raging fires in the Amazon, responding to requests for assistance from their local governments, a spokeswoman for his office said.

總統辦公室發言人說,截至周日,巴西總統雅伊爾·博索納羅已授權軍方在七個州幫助撲滅亞馬孫地區的大火,以回應當地政府的援助請求。

此舉也被媒體視為博索納羅對國際輿論批評的回應:

Bolsonaro announced the military would be sent in on Friday after several days of criticism from the public and world leaders that Brazil’s government was not doing anything to fight the fires.
在受到公眾和各國領導人連日批評巴西政府在應對火災方面毫無作為後,博索納羅宣布周五(23日)軍隊將參與滅火。

巴西國防部長費爾南多·阿澤維多24日表示,大約4.4萬名士兵可以參與滅火,正趕往羅賴馬、朗多尼亞、托坎廷斯等6州。

Under increasing international pressure to contain the fires, Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro has ordered 44,000 troops to be ready to combat the fires.

國際社會要求控制火勢的壓力越來越大,巴西總統雅伊爾·博索納羅下令4萬4千名軍人準備參與滅火。

據報道,巴西軍方出動兩架C-130型「大力神」運輸機,運水滅火。

A video posted by the Defense Ministry on Saturday evening showed a military plane pumping thousands of liters of water out of two giant jets as it passed through clouds of smoke close to the forest canopy.

國防部上周六晚間發佈的一段視頻顯示,一架軍用飛機在穿過森林樹冠附近的煙雲時,從兩架巨型噴氣式飛機中抽出了數千升的水用來滅火。

▌亞馬孫雨林新增1600多處着火點

巴西國家太空研究院(Brazil’s National Institute for Space Research)的數據顯示,超過半數的着火點集中在亞馬孫盆地,22日至23日新增大約1663處着火點。

巴西今年以來報告森林着火點接近7.7萬處,比去年同期增加大約85%,超過半數着火點位於亞馬孫雨林。

Brazilian state experts reported nearly 77,000 wildfires across the country so far this year, up 85 percent over the same period in 2018.

▌着火原因:自然or人為?

據CNN報道,不少專家表示此次雨林大火,更多是人為原因造成的。

當地農牧民向來有放火開荒的耕種傳統,8月份進入旱季後,植物更為乾燥,更易點燃。

This year’s fires fit with an established seasonal agricultural pattern, said CNN meteorologist Haley Brink. “It’s the best time to burn because the vegetation is dry. “

CNN氣象學家Haley Brink表示,今年的火災與當地季節性的農業模式契合。「植被很乾燥,所以這是燒山開荒的最佳時機。」

當地時間8月24日,巴西朗多尼亞州,巴西境內的亞馬孫雨林大火火情十分嚴峻。燃燒後的亞馬孫雨林滿目瘡痍。(圖片來源:視覺中國)

非營利組織亞馬孫觀察項目負責人Christian Poirier表示,此次大部分着火點都是人為造成的(human-lit)。

“The vast majority of these fires are human-lit,” said Poirier, who explained that even during dry seasons, the rainforest cannot catch fire easily, unlike, say, the dry bushlands of California or Australia.

Poirier說:「絕大多數火災都是人為點燃的。」他解釋稱,即使在旱季,雨林也不像加州或澳大利亞的乾旱叢林那樣容易着火。

巴西總統博索納羅自今年1月就職以來多次表示,巴西應該為商業利益開放亞馬孫雨林,允許採礦、伐木和農業企業開發雨林自然資源。

輿論認為,博索納羅對雨林開發的態度,是對「大火開荒」等非法行為的縱容和默許。

同時也有報道指出,巴西現任政府對雨林保護力度的減弱,以及相對前任政府來說較為消極的政策,是導致這場大火持續數周之久的原因之一。

▌亞馬孫雨林大火或加快全球變暖

亞馬孫雨林是世界上最大的雨林,對減緩全球變暖至關重要,故常被稱為「地球之肺(the planet’s lungs)」。

The Amazon is the world’s largest tropical rain forest and is seen as vital to the fight against climate change because of the vast amounts of carbon dioxide that it absorbs.

亞馬孫是全球最大的熱帶雨林,可吸收大量二氧化碳,被視為對抗氣候變化的重要因素。

專家分析指出,此次大火最直接的影響是南美地區降雨減少、氣候更加乾燥。

長期來看,大火造成的碳排放或將導致全球變暖更嚴重。

Brazilian climate scientist Carlos Nobre said he worries if 20-25 percent of the ecosystem is destroyed that the Amazon could reach a tipping point, after which it would enter a self-sustaining period of dieback as the forest converts to savannah. Nobre warned that it is not far off with already 15-17 percent of the rain forest having been destroyed.

巴西氣候科學家卡洛斯·諾布雷說,他擔心如果20%-25%的生態系統遭到破壞,亞馬孫可能會達到一個臨界點,在此之後,隨着森林向熱帶草原轉變,亞馬孫將進入一個自我維持的死亡期。諾布雷警告說,已經有15%-17%的雨林被摧毀,離這個後果已經不遠了。

單詞:

canopy [‘kænəpi] n. 天蓬;罩蓬

vegetation n. 植被;草木

meteorologist [‘mitɪə’rɑlədʒɪst] n. 氣象學者

bushland n. 灌木叢;原始林區

dieback n. 枝枯病

savannah [sə’vænə] n. 熱帶和亞熱帶草原

tropical rainforest 熱帶雨林

carbon dioxide 二氧化碳

tipping point 臨界點

(來源:中國日報)

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