英语学习 「赢」「输」用法的分别

加拿大都市网

加拿大都市网

陈若琳(左)和汪皓日前在伦敦奥运会win赢得金牌。

      有人说过:资本主义世界,永远有赢家或输家: In a capitalist society, there will always be winners and losers。Winners see the gain. Losers see the pain.  
      WIN作动词用,有获胜和赢得的意思。前者例如You win a game, fight, argument, election。后者例如You win a prize, a medal, or support。WIN指在竞赛、战争、比拼中获得胜利,或者因此而赢得奖金或战利品。
      WIN和EARN及GAIN,用法有明显分别。
      EARN通常指你为你所做的工作获得报酬:The reporter earns $3000 a month working for a newspaper。GAIN通常指你获得有用和期望得到的东西,不一等和金钱有关:You gained useful experience while working for the newspaper。
      WIN和DEFEAT及BEAT,用法也有分别:You do not say that someone wins an enemy or opponent. In a war or battle, you say that one side defeats the other. In a game or contest, you say one person defeats or beats the other.
      You win hands down你轻易取得胜利。You win by a long chalk means you win very conclusively你毫不含煳地赢得胜利。You win some rounds means you are partly successful你赢得部份胜利。
      WIN作名词用,相等于SUCCESS 成功 or VICTORY胜利。运动方面,两胜三负是two wins and three defeats。双赢的局面是win-win。一个各得其所的局面便是a win-win situation all around。例如:The agreement or solution is a win-win for everyone。反之,便是It’s a no-win situation。
      WINNING作形容词用,有两个配词用法很有趣:A winning smile是迷人的一笑;a winning way of doing something is one that makes somebody like you例如令人倾倒的神态;a winning streak is a period of time when you win every game or competition你手风顺,运气好。
      A WINNER赢家is a VICTOR胜利者。成者为王,败者为寇。A winner takes all赢者通吃=a situation where the one who defeats others takes all the spoils of the conflict一切战利品,归为己有。
      运动场上、赌场上、商场上、情场上,胜利者欢唿,失败者嘆息,司空见惯。当某人失意时,你可以安慰他这样说:You  can’t win them all =You win some, you lose some 。
      VICTORY可以配上不同的形容词:a dramatic victory戏剧性的胜利,a decisive victory决定性的胜利,a narrow victory微弱的险胜,a surprise victory意外的成功,a landslide victory压倒性优势的选举胜利,a well-earned victory理所应得的胜利等,都很常用。
      VICTORY前面运用合适的动词,可以考虑不同的搭配:roar, romp, coast, cruise, storm, sweep to victory均表示轻易大获全胜=a runaway success:Michel Phelps swept to victory in 2008 Beijing Olympics with 8 gold medals. Fernando       Torres led the Spanish team to runaway victory in the 2012 European Cup.
      英国首相Winston Churchill邱吉尔1940年5月13日在国会第一次演讲:You ask: ‘What is our aim?’ I can answer in one word: ‘Victory!’ Victory at all costs, victory in spite of all terror, victory however long and hard the road may be: for without victory there is no survival不胜则亡。
      至于伤亡惨重,得不偿失的胜利,只好说:a Pyrrhic or hollow victory which is not worth winning because the winner has suffered or lost so much in winning it。
      DEFEAT是VICTORY的相反词=failure to win or succeed。
      用法方面:Defeat is always uncountable in these combinations: You had to admit defeat认输. You can choose to concede defeat or fight back。
      Defeated等同conquered, vanquished, overthrown 失败或战败。
      DEFEAT可以配上不同的形容词:a heavy defeat大败, a crushing defeat惨败, a humiliating defeat耻辱的失败, a tight defeat惜败, a shock defeat意想不到的挫败。If you say:  We aren’t going to take defeat lying down=You won’t accept it easily不轻言败!
      冠在DEFEAT前面,表示admit  defeat的动词,acknowledge, concede, accept都很常用。例如:美国总统选举,失败一方会大方和对方握手,以示民主公平竞争的风范:The presidential candidate  accepted defeat gracefully and shook hands with the winner。表示遭受失败experience a defeat 的动词搭配,crash to, face, taste, suffer都很常用。例如:该政党在大选中惨败:The political party suffered a humiliating defeat in the general election。
      失败乃成功之母:Failure is the mother of success。挫折和逆境是通向成功的道路。
      功败垂成仍为败:A miss is as good as a mile,换言之,错误再小也是错:there is no difference between only just failing in something and failing it badly because the result is still the same。
      有关WINNERS AND LOSERS成败得失的英文隽语,可以列举几句,供大家赏玩:
      Winners see the potential;
      Losers see the past.  成者看到前面的潜力,败者只眷顾失去的过去。
      Winners are a part of the team;
      Losers are apart of the team.成者合群,败者离群。
      Winners believe in win-win;
      Losers believe for them to win someone has to lose. 成者相信双赢,败者相信先要别人输,自己才会赢。

      文:文世昌