欧洲麻疹疫情严重 加国政府呼吁旅客接种疫苗

加拿大都市网

(FILES): This file photo taken on January 21, 2018 shows a young woman as she receives a flu shot at a Walgreens pharmacy in San Francisco, California. Joe Accurso, a 47-year-old chiropractor, refused to vaccinate his daughter against polio, measles or whooping cough because he believes that getting sick wouldn't be dangerous and might even be good for her."I am actually disappointed that she doesn't have the opportunity to get the chicken pox, to get diseases that make her body stronger in the future. That is our big reason," he told AFP.Don't call them "anti-vaxxers." Joe and his wife Cathy, a physical therapist, are part of a vocal minority that believes in "vaccine choice."These parents -- many of whom are white, educated and upper middle class -- choose not to immunize their children against diseases which collectively used to kill millions children per year around the world. / AFP PHOTO / GETTY IMAGES NORTH AMERICA / JUSTIN SULLIVAN

本报记者

加拿大公共卫生部(Public Health Agency of Canada)发出警告,由于欧洲多个国家的麻疹个案激增,旅客出发前,不论目的地,须确定已经接种有关疫苗。世界卫生组织早前通报,去年麻疹在欧洲造成35个儿童死亡。由罗马尼亚至英国,个案由2016年的历史最低数字5,273宗,激增4倍至去年2万1,315宗。该病主要在未接种麻疹疫苗的儿童间传播。

目前以罗马尼亚疫情最为严重,录得5,562宗。其次是意大利,有5,006宗,3人死亡。乌克兰有4,767宗,比利时、英国、法国、德国、希腊、俄罗斯和塔吉克斯坦斯坦,也各有超过1,000宗病例。

加拿大公共卫生部最新公布,拉脱维亚、马其顿、黑山及挪威,也加入疫情严重国家名单;非洲、亚洲也出现病例。在加拿大,病例经旅客传入,再传播至未防疫社区。

可经咳嗽与飞沫传播

麻疹是高度传染性疾病,经接触、咳嗽和打喷嚏发出的飞沫传播。患者早期于口腔及喉咙出现白点、高烧、脸及颈部出红疹。有可能引发肺炎。死亡率是1,000分之1 。在卫生条件较差的国家,死亡率更高达6%。虽然大部分患者都会痊愈,但麻疹仍然是导致幼儿死亡的主要原因。

全球近年流行反疫苗学说。韦克菲尔德医生(Dr. Andrew J. Wakefield)在20年前于医学期刊《刺针》(The Lancet)发表文章,用8名儿童的病例,证明麻疹 – 腮腺炎 – 风疹疫苗引发肠道炎症和自闭症。该期刊后来收回文章,韦克菲尔德医生也因收受控告疫苗公司律师的利益,而被英国医学会停牌。

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