Psychological first aid应付心理创伤



在场的人的心理自然受到很大冲击,但社区中的其他人,特别是犹太人社群,就算没有目睹血腥场面,心理、情绪一样受到影响。 CNN报道:

Dismay, horror and disbelief were feelings shared by many in the aftermath(后果) of the mass shooting at a synagogue(犹太教堂) in Pittsburgh that left 11 people dead and six wounded.


Dismay用作名词,解concern and distress caused by something unexpected,惊愕;例如︰In the workers’ dismay, the company cancelled their year-end bonus. Dismay也用作动词,解cause someone to feel concern and distress,使惊愕;例如︰The school was dismayed when the government suspended its subsidy.

Horror是恐惧。 Disbelief解inability or refusal to accept that something is true or real,不能相信、怀疑;例如︰She stared at me in disbelief when I told her she had failed the examination.(我告诉她她考试不及格,她一脸怀疑盯着我。)

处理身体受伤的急救叫first aid,心理创伤需要的first aid则叫Psychological First Aid (PFA,心理急救)。 George S. Everly是这方面的专家、The Johns Hopkins Guide to Psychological First Aid的作者。他解释:”Perhaps the best way to conceptualize(概念化) PFA is as the psychological health analogue(模拟的) to physical first aid. It’s applying a psychological bandage.”

他说︰”Psycholosgical First Aid can help support family and friends through a crisis.”(心理急救可以帮助家人朋友渡过危机。)”Consistent with our intuitions, a recommendation in the American Journal of Psychiatry stated that shortly after a stressful (造成重大压力的) event, it is important that those affected be provided empathic(有同理心的), practical psychological support beginning with a compassionate(基于同情的) and supportive presence.”

疗心do’s and don’ts

他强调,需要受过训练才可为心理受创的人进行PFA,但他列出一些do’s and don’ts(应遵循的行为规范),让公众对PFA的过程有些理解。要点包括:

‧Do remain calm when speaking to a person in distress(痛苦). Show concern but be a confident reassuring(令人宽慰的) presence. The other person will gain confidence from your confidence.

‧Do listen. Encourage the person to talk about what happened and their reactions to those events. If the person does not want to speak at that time, ask if you can check back with them later.

‧Don’t interrupt(打断), unless the disclosure seems to be escalating(使恶化) the distress.

‧Don’t be dismissive(轻视的). Don’t minimize(贬低) their concerns or say, “Well at least …” as an attempt to distract, or help the person feel better.